There were generally only men that had full facial moko, though high-ranked women often had moko on their lips and chins.
The most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around CEat the end of the medieval warm period. Migration accounts vary among tribes iwiwhose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies whakapapa.
In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA mtDNA research has allowed an estimate The significant individual from maori community be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and Language-evolution studies  and mtDNA evidence  suggest that most Pacific populations originated from Taiwanese aborigines around 5, years ago suggesting prior migration from the Asian or Chinese mainland.
Subsequently it was found that 96 per cent of Polynesian mtDNA has an Asian origin, as do one-third of Polynesian Y chromosomes, with the remaining two-thirds being from New Guinea and nearby islands.
Other species, also now extinct, included a swan, a goose and the giant Haast's eaglewhich preyed upon the moa. Marine mammals—seals in particular—thronged the coasts, with evidence of coastal colonies much further north than those which remain today [update]. Further south, at the mouth of the Shag River Waihemoevidence suggests that at least 6, moa were slaughtered by humans over a relatively short period of time.
It was common for people to establish small temporary camps far inland for seasonal hunting. Settlements ranged in size from 40 people e. Radiocarbon dating shows the site was occupied from about to Due to tectonic forces, some of the Wairau Bar site is now underwater.
Work on the Wairau Bar skeletons in showed that life expectancy was very short, the oldest skeleton being 39 and most people dying in their 20s. Most of the adults showed signs of dietary or infection stress.
Anemia and arthritis were common. Infections such as tuberculosis TB may have been present, as the symptoms were present in several skeletons.
Moa were also an important source of meat. According to Professor Allan Cooper, the people slaughtered to extinction most of the various lost species within years.
The low number of births may have been due to the very low average life expectancy of 31—32 years. This suggests that the people ate a balanced diet and enjoyed a supportive community that had the resources to support severely injured family members.
The cooling of the climate, confirmed by a detailed tree-ring study near Hokitikashows a significant, sudden and long-lasting cooler period from This coincided with a series of massive earthquakes in the South Island Alpine fault, a major earthquake in in the Wellington area,  tsunamis that destroyed many coastal settlements, and the extinction of the moa and other food species.
This period is characterised by finely made pounamu greenstone weapons and ornaments, elaborately carved canoes—a tradition that was later extended to and continued in elaborately carved meeting houses called wharenui  —and a fierce warrior culture.
A notable feature of Moriori culture was an emphasis on pacifism.
The battle was fought between about 7, warriors from a Taranaki -led force and a much smaller Waikato force under the leadership of Te Rauangaanga. European settlement of New Zealand occurred in relatively recent historical times.
Between andthere were 65 sealing voyages and whaling voyages to New Zealand, mainly from Britain and Australia. European settlement of New Zealand increased steadily. This led to a period of bloody intertribal warfare known as the Musket Warswhich resulted in the decimation of several tribes and the driving of others from their traditional territory.
The smashing of normal society by the four decades of wars and the driving of peaceful tribes from their productive turangawaewae, such as the Moriori in the Chatham Islands by invading forces from North Taranaki, had a catastrophic effect on these conquered tribes.
A huge influx of European settlers in the s increased contact among many of the indigenous people with the newcomers. It "decimated" populations in the early 19th century and "spread with extraordinary virulence throughout the North Island and even to the South With increasing Christian missionary activity and growing European settlement in the s, and with growing lawlessness in New Zealand, the British Crown acceded to repeated requests from missionaries and some chiefs rangatira to intervene.
Tamati Waka Nene, a pro-government chief, was angry that the government had not taken active steps to stop gunrunners selling weapons to rebels in Hokianga.In the 19th century settlements were hapu-based, and 5 buildings became standardized-the sleeping whare, Kauta or communal cookhouse/shelter, whata or wood store, pataka or storehouse and increasingly from the s wharepuni or community meeting house.
Significant finance and mana was invested in increasingly elaborate meeting houses which became a source of hapu or iwi pride and . The Origins of the American School Building: Boston Public School Architecture, Published: Thu, 18 May Tikanga, coming from the Maori word tika which means true or correct, has a wide range of meanings – culture, custom, ethic, etiquette.
Due to centuries of isolation, the Maori established a distinct society with characteristic art, a separate language and a unique mythology. Defining aspects of Maori traditional culture include their tattoos, their dances (of which the Haka is still preformed by the National Rugby Team of New Zealand, All Blacks), their art, legends and community.
David’s full speech can be read here.. Feigning offence is a tactic commonly used by those who want to close down a debate. By using this strategy and playing the race card, Kelvin Davis was able to divert attention away from the real issue of Maori privilege onto the question of whether or not KiwiMeter – and TVNZ – is racist.
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