First of all, the Romans were remarkably tolerant of cultural and religious differences, and did not force conquered people to adopt Roman religion or even language. They only required that they make no alliances with foreign powers and furnish troops to the Roman Army. They were not even required to pay Roman taxes. Among its other accomplishments, the Empire established a codified system of
Transformation The tradition positing general malaise goes back to Edward Gibbon who argued that the edifice of the Roman Empire had been built on unsound foundations to begin with. According to Gibbon, the fall was - in the final analysis - inevitable.
On the other hand, Gibbon had assigned a major portion of the responsibility for the decay to the influence of Christianity, and is often, though perhaps unjustly, seen as the founding father of the school of monocausal explanation. On the other hand, the school of catastrophic collapse holds that the fall of the Empire had not been a pre-determined event and need not be taken for granted.
According to this school, drawing its basic premise from the Pirenne thesisthe Roman world underwent a gradual though often violent series of transformations, morphing into the medieval world.
The historians belonging to this school often prefer to speak of Late Antiquity instead of the Fall of the Roman Empire. They gradually entrusted the role of defending the Empire to barbarian mercenaries who eventually turned on them.
Gibbon held that Christianity contributed to this shift by making the populace less interested in the worldly here-and-now because it was willing to wait for the rewards of heaven. The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness.
Prosperity ripened the principle of decay; the causes of destruction multiplied with the extent of conquest; and as soon as time or accident had removed the artificial supports, the stupendous fabric yielded to the pressure of its own weight.
Vegetius on military decline Writing in the 5th century, the Roman historian Vegetius pleaded for reform of what must have been a greatly weakened army.
The historian Arther Ferrill has suggested that the Roman Empire — particularly the military — declined largely as a result of an influx of Germanic mercenaries into the ranks of the legions.
This "Germanization" and the resultant cultural dilution or "barbarization" led not only to a decline in the standard of drill and overall military preparedness within the Empire, but also to a decline of loyalty to the Roman government in favor of loyalty to commanders.
Ferrill agrees with other Roman historians such as A. There was a decline in agriculture and land was withdrawn from cultivation, in some cases on a very large scale, sometimes as a direct result of barbarian invasions.
However, the chief cause of the agricultural decline was high taxation on the marginal land, driving it out of cultivation. Toynbee and James Burke argue that the Roman Empire itself was a rotten system from its inception, and that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in Republican times.
In their view, the Empire could never have lasted longer than it did without radical reforms that no Emperor could implement.
The Romans had no budgetary system and thus wasted whatever resources they had available. The economy of the Empire was a Raubwirtschaft or plunder economy based on looting existing resources rather than producing anything new. With the cessation of tribute from conquered territories, the full cost of their military machine had to be borne by the citizenry.
An economy based upon slave labor precluded a middle class with buying power.His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between and The Decline and Fall is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its open criticism of organised religion.4/5.
A Roman general, statesman, consul; played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire Triumvirate In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government. Byzantine Empire, the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in Attila the Hun was also known as Flagellum Dei, which means the ‘Scourge of God.’ With him at the lead, the Huns were one of the biggest threats faced by the Roman Empire.
Although he was famously defeated by the Romans under Flavius Aetius and their Visigothic allies under Theoderic I at the Battle of Catalaunian Plains, Attila the Hun and his warriors were still a threat to the Western.
The fall of the city of Rome and the Western Empire did not put an end to the entire Roman Empire. The Eastern Empire survived for another thousand years. The Eastern Empire is sometimes called the Byzantine Empire, after the capital city of Byzantium.
Greek was the main language in the Byzantine Empire, not Latin. The "Roman Empire" (Imperium Romanum) is used to denote that part of the world under Roman rule from approximately 44 B.C.E.
until C.E. The term also distinguished imperial from Republican Rome. The expansion of Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome started long before the state became an Empire.