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In reality there are distinct biological features of the organisms and technical factors of dealing with them that make their potential eradicability more or less likely. Three indicators, however, are considered of primary importance in determining the likelihood of successful eradication: Stopping polio transmission has been pursued through a combination of routine immunizationsupplementary immunization campaigns and surveillance of possible outbreaks.
Several key strategies have been outlined for stopping polio transmission: Organization of "national immunization days" to provide supplementary doses of oral polio vaccine to all children less than five years old.
Active surveillance for poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Acute flaccid paralysis AFP is a clinical manifestation of poliomyelitis characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause e.
AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enterovirusesechovirusesand adenovirusesamong others.
Since most polio infections are asymptomatic, transmission can occur in spite of Larson in nigeria absence of polio-related AFP cases, and such monitoring helps to evaluate the degree to which virus continues to circulate in an area.
Targeted "mop-up" campaigns once poliovirus transmission is limited to a specific focal area. Vaccination[ edit ] There are two distinct polio vaccines. The oral polio vaccine OPV, or Sabin vaccine contains an attenuated poliovirus, 10, times less able to enter the circulation and cause polio,  delivered as oral drops or infused into sugar cubes.
A study carried out in an isolated Eskimo village showed that antibodies produced from subclinical wild virus infection persisted for at least 40 years. Attenuated poliovirus derived from the oral polio vaccine is excreted, and infects and indirectly induces immunity in unvaccinated individuals, thus amplifying the effects of the doses delivered.
Taken together, these advantages have made it the preferred vaccine of many countries, and it has long been preferred by the global eradication initiative. It can induce vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis VAPP in approximately 1 individual per every 2. This vaccine cannot induce VAPP nor do cVDPV strains arise from it, but it likewise cannot induce contact immunity and thus must be administered to every individual.
Added to this are greater logistical challenges. Though a single dose is sufficient for protection, administration requires medically trained vaccinators armed with single-use needles and syringes.
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Taken together, these factors result in substantially higher delivery costs. As a consequence, a vaccinated individual is protected from contracting polio, but their intestinal mucosa can still be infected and serve as a reservoir for the excretion of live virus.
It is recommended that vulnerable children receive a dose of OPV at birth, then beginning at the age of 6 weeks a 'primary series' consisting of three OPV doses at least four weeks apart, along with one dose of IPV after 14 weeks.
Poliovirus is transmitted only through person-to-person contact and the transmission cycle of polio is from one infected person to another person susceptible to the disease, and so on.
If the number of susceptible individuals can be reduced to a sufficiently small number through vaccinationthen the pathogen will eventually die off. Among those individuals who receive oral polio vaccine, only 95 percent will develop immunity.
According to the concepts of herd immunity this population whom the vaccine fails, are still protected by the immunity of those around them. Herd immunity can only be achieved when vaccination levels are high. The oral vaccine is a powerful tool in fighting polio in part because of its person-to-person transmission and resulting contact immunity.The most complete list of Forex Brokers since on heartoftexashop.com Larson in Nigeria Case Study Solution & Analysis.
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Larson Inc. in Nigeria Case Study IMAN – Week 11 Kolade Zackius-Shittu University of Maryland University College August 4, Summer Semester, In June Larson flew to Kano, Nigeria, to begin a two-year term in an agricultural ministry in the Kano area. He returned to the United States in and enrolled in the Interdisciplinary track of Wheaton Graduate School.