Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation:
Topics of study in this field include similarities and differences between cultures in terms of norms, values, attitudes, scripts, patterns of behavior, cultural products such as laws, myths, symbols, or material artifactssocial structure, practices and rituals, institutions, and ecologies.
Important cultural psychological research has been done by a variety of social scientists, including anthropologists, sociologists, political scientists, and researchers from across the discipline of psychology.
Much of the contemporary work in the field is being done by developmental psychologists, some prominent but nonmainstream anthropologists, and social psychologists, with a very heavy contribution from this last group.
Cultural psychology differs from mainstream social psychology in its explicit consideration of culture and in its comparative approach, sampling from two or more cultural populations. In a famous article from the early s, two anthropologists compiled over definitions of culture, and the matter is no more settled today.
Instead of concentrating on such abstract questions, however, cultural psychologists have focused on what they take to be interesting cultural phenomena and on the processes by which people become encultured. Proponents of both types of work often make comparisons across cultures, but those who emphasize the emic aspects of culture tend to reject the idea that there are just a few basic dimensions—such as how individualistic versus collectivistic a culture is or how hierarchical versus egalitarian a culture is—upon which all cultures can be measured and classified.
Those emphasizing the etic aspects of culture often collect data from many cultures and thus use methods such as surveys and questionnaires in which data can be collected en masse, whereas those who emphasize the emic aspects of culture often collect data from far fewer cultures often just two and frequently use methods such as experiments or qualitative methodologies that are not well suited to mass data collection.
The entry contains work of both sorts. The list compiled is intended to provide resources appropriate for various audiences—professional researchers, graduate students, undergraduates, and the educated lay public.
General Overviews Several excellent overviews of the field of cultural psychology are available. Some are more suitable for advanced undergraduates, whereas others are useful for researchers who want to get up to speed quickly on a given area.
Among the latter group, the handbook Matsumoto tends to be heavier on research emphasizing the etic approach to studying culture, whereas the handbook Kitayama and Cohen tends to be heavier on research emphasizing the emic approach.
Heine is the most comprehensive, but Chiu and Hong ; Triandis ; and Smith, et al. Heine is a handbook chapter appropriate for researchers wanting to get up to speed on recent developments.
Shweder is authored by one of the opinion leaders in cultural psychology, and his book contains a number of essays that should jump-start discussions in seminars devoted to the topic.
Chiu, Chi-yue, and Ying-yi Hong. Social psychology of culture. The book aims to explore cultural phenomena through many of the prominent principles of social psychology, especially those related to social cognition. In Handbook of social psychology.
Edited by Susan T. A shorter overview of the field. It is more suitable for graduate students and practicing researchers, whereas Heine is more appropriate for undergraduate courses.
The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences The authors also discuss some commonalities across cultures as well. Kitayama, Shinobu, and Dov Cohen, eds. Handbook of cultural psychology. A useful reference work aimed at researchers.
The chapters are primarily by psychologists, though several prominent anthropologists also contributed.
A second edition is due out in Markus, Hazel, and Alana Conner. How to thrive in a multicultural world. It covers how a number of cultural fault lines emerge with respect to race, gender, region, religion, class, and workplace cultures. Markus is one of the leading scholars in the field, and this book would work quite well for upper-level undergraduate courses.Individualism Vs.
Collectivism There are two basic ways of understanding the relationship between individuals in a group. The first way is individualism, which states that each individual is acting on his or her own, making their own choices, and to the extent they . Need help with your essay? Take a look at what our essay writing service can do for you: Click Here!
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