Notes about the materials Be sure you and the students wear properly fitting goggles.
What Utilitarianism Is Part 1 Summary Mill attempts to reply to misconceptions about utilitarianism, and thereby delineate the theory. Mill observes that many people misunderstand utilitarianism by interpreting utility as in opposition to pleasure. In reality, utility is defined as pleasure itself, and the absence of pain.
Thus another name for utility is the Greatest Happiness Principle.
This principle holds that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.
The next criticism Mill takes on is the claim that it is base and demeaning to reduce the meaning of life to pleasure.
To this Mill replies that human pleasures are much superior animalistic ones: It is true that some pleasures may be "base"; however, this does not mean that all of them are: When making a moral judgment on an action, utilitarianism thus takes into account not just the quantity, but also the quality of the pleasures resulting from it.
Mill delineates how to differentiate between higher- and lower-quality pleasures: A pleasure is of higher quality if people would choose it over a different pleasure even if it is accompanied by discomfort, and if they would not trade it for a greater amount of the other pleasure.
Moreover, Mill contends, it is an "unquestionable fact" that, given equal access to all kinds of pleasures, people will prefer those that appeal to their "higher" faculties. A person will not choose to become an animal, an educated person will not choose to become ignorant, and so on.
Even though a person who uses higher faculties often suffers more in life hence the common dictum "ignorance is bliss"he would never choose a lower existence, preferring instead to maintain his dignity.
Another misconception about utilitarianism stems from a confusion of happiness with contentment.
People who employ higher faculties are often less content, because they have a deeper sense of the limitations of the world.
However, their pleasure is of a higher character than that of an animal or a base human. Mill writes, "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.
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And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinions, it is because they only know their side of the question. Furthermore, Mill observes that even if the possession of a "noble character" brought less happiness to the individual, society would still benefit.
Thus, because the greatest happiness principle considers the total amount of happiness, a noble character, even if it is less desirable for the individual, is still desirable by a utilitarian standard.
Commentary This chapter provides the definition of utilitarianism. There are a few important aspects of this definition. First, it presents utility, or the existence of pleasure and the absence of pain, as both the basis of everything that people desire, and as the foundation of morality.Study Questions For New Testament Books of the Bible Ephesians Chapter 1 1.
Who was the author of Ephesians? Identify and name (as many as you can) the spiritual blessings Paul cites in this chapter (2) only. Ephesians Chapter 3 1. In verse 1, why does Paul say he is a prisoner of Jesus Christ for preaching to the Gentiles? A summary of Chapter 2: What Utilitarianism Is (Part 1) in John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Utilitarianism and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. MGT Review - Chapter 1, 2, 3 Questions. STUDY. PLAY. Discuss the relationship between "efficiency" and "effectiveness" and identify real organizations you think are, or are not, efficient and/or effective.
h4. Chapter 2: Integumentary System The skin is the largest organ in the body. The normal adult has over 20 square feet of skin so it is easy to understand how something can go wrong with this much area to cover. As a membranous barrier between a person's outer and inner surroundings, the skin responds to external changes and also reflects internal changes.
After you study this chapter and chart the tasks ahead, subsequent chapters will guide your journey to clinical competence. Chapter 2, Interviewing and The Health History, expands on the tech- niques and skills of good interviewing.
After summarizing the theories presented in Chapter 2, ask students to identify issues of interest in adolescent development (e.g., sports, peer groups, drinking, sex .